Molecular characterization and Plasmodium falciparum transmission risks of Anopheles mosquitoes in Malete, Nigeria

Molecular characterization and Plasmodium falciparum transmission risks of Anopheles mosquitoes in Malete, Nigeria




Mosquito, Anopheles, Malaria transmission, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria


Introduction: Studies on malaria vector surveillance are useful for evidence-based control in specific communities. Such studies are lacking in Malete, a rapidly growing peri-urban community in Nigeria. Objective: To assess sibling species identity, human blood indices, and Plasmodium falciparum transmission risks by Anopheles mosquitoes, in Malete. Methods: I collected endophilic mosquitoes quarterly from inhabited houses using the pyrethrum spray catch technique. I identified the mosquitoes, and probed for the presence of human blood and P. falciparum, using standard PCR and ELISA methods, respectively. Results: Anopheles mosquitoes (90%) were the most abundant compared to Culex (10%) and Mansonia (0,5%). Specifically, A. gambiae (85%) were predominant over A. coluzzii (11%) and A. arabiensis (3%). The Anopheles sibling species had generally high human blood indices (≥0,82). However, A. gambiae man-biting rates (0,92-3,64) were higher than A. coluzzii (0-0,84) and A. arabiensis (0-0,27). Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection (3%) was found only in A. gambiae. Conclusion: While P. falciparum infection was 3%, long-lasting insecticidal nets should be deployed for control in Malete, particularly of A. gambiae.


Alaaya, B. A., Adetimirin, O. I., & Alagbe, A. O. (2013). Investigation of ground water reservoir in Asa and Ilorin west local government of Kwara State using geographic information system. FIG Working Week 2013 Environment for Sustainability Abuja, Nigeria, 6 – 10 May 2013.

Awolola, T. S., Oyewole, I. O., Amajoh, C. N., Idowu, E. T., Ajayi, M. B., Oduola, A., Manafa, O. U., Ibrahim, K., Koekemoer, L. L., & Coetzee, M. (2005). Distribution of the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid knock down resistance gene in Nigeria. Acta Tropica, 95(3), 204-209.

Beier, J. C., Perkins, P. V., Wirtz, R. A., Koros, J., Diggs, D., Gargan, T. P., & Koech, D. K. (1988). Blood meal identification by direct enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tested on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology, 25(1), 9–16.

Collins, F. H., Mendez, M. A., Rasmussen, M. O., Mehaffey, P. C., Besansky, N. J., & Finnerty, V. A. (1987). Ribosomal RNA gene probe differentiates member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 37(1), 37–41.

Favia, G., della Torre, A., Bagayoko, M., Lanfrancotti, A., Sagnon, N., Touré, Y. T., & Coluzzi, M. (1997). Molecular identification of sympatric chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae and further evidence of their reproductive isolation. Insect Molecular Biology, 6(4), 377-383.

Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) (2014). National Malaria Strategic Plan 2014-2020.

Gillies, M. T., & Coetzee, M. A. (1987). Supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Afrotropical region). Publication of South African Institute of Medical Research, (55), 1-143.

Gimonneau, G., Brossettea, L., Mamaïa, W., Dabiré, R. K., & Simard, F. (2014). Larval competition between A. coluzzii and A. gambiae in insectary and semi-field conditions in Burkina Faso. Acta Tropica, 130, 155-161.

Killeen, G. F., Govella, N. J., Lwetoijera, D. W., & Okumu, F. O. (2016). Most outdoor malaria transmission by behaviourally-resistant Anopheles arabiensis is mediated by mosquitoes that have previously been inside houses. Malaria Journal, 15, 225.

Lehmann, T., & Diabate, A. (2008). The molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: A phenotypic perspective. Infection Genetics and Evolution, 8(5), 737–746.

Mayagaya, V. S., Nkwengulila, G., Lyimo, I. N., Kihonda, J., Mtambala, H., Ngonyani, H., Russell, T. L., & Ferguson, H. M. (2015). The impact of livestock on the abundance, resting behaviour and sporozoite rate of malaria vectors in southern Tanzania. Malaria Journal, 14, 17.

National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP), National Population Commission (NPopC), National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), and ICF International. (2016). Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey 2015: Key Indicators.

Obembe, A., Oduola, A. O., Oyeniyi, T. A., Olakiigbe, A. K., & Awolola, S. T. (2022). Genetic identity, human blood indices, and sporozoite rates of malaria vectors in Gaa-Bolorunduro, Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 16(8), 1351-1358.

Obembe, A., Popoola, K. O., Oduola, A. O., & Awolola, S. T. (2018a). Mind the weather: a report on inter-annual variations in entomological data within a rural community under insecticide-treated wall lining installation in Kwara State, Nigeria. Parasites and Vectors, 11, 497.

Obembe, A., Popoola, K. O., Oduola, A. O., & Awolola, S. T. (2018b). Differential behaviour of endophilic Anopheles mosquitoes in rooms occupied by tobacco smokers and non-smokers in two Nigerian villages. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 22(6), 981-985.

Obembe, A., Popoola, K. O., Oduola, A. O., Tola, M., Adeogun, A. O., Oyeniyi, T. A., & Awolola, S. T. (2019). Preliminary evaluation of village-scale insecticide-treated durable wall lining against Anopheles gambiae s.l in Akorede, Kwara State, Nigeria. Manila Journal of Science, 12, 1-9.

Oduola, A. O., Adelaja, O. J., Aiyegbusi, Z. O., Tola, M., Obembe, A., Ande, A. T., Omotayo, A. I., & Awolola, S. (2016). Dynamics of Anopheline vector species composition and reported malaria cases during rain and dry seasons in two selected communities in Kwara State. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 37(2), 157-163.

Oduola, A. O., Obembe, A., Lateef, S. A., Abdulbaki, M. K., Kehinde, E. A., Adelaja, O. J., Shittu, O., Tola, M., Oyeniyi, T. A., & Awolola, T. S. (2021). Species composition and Plasmodium falciparum infection rates of Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in six localities of Kwara State, North Central, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 25(10), 1801 –1806.

Scott, J. A., Brogdon, W. G., & Collins, F. H. (1993). Identification of single specimens of the Anopheles gambiae complex by the polymerase chain reaction. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 49(4), 520–529.

Shililu, J. I., Maier, W. A., Seitz, H. M., & Orago, A. S. (1998). Seasonal density, sporozoite rates and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in a high-altitude sugarcane growing zone in western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 3(9), 706–710.

Thiaw, O., Doucouré, S., Sougoufara, S., Bouganali, C., Konaté, L., Diagne, N., Faye, O., & Sokhna, C. (2018). Investigating insecticide resistance and knock down resistance (kdr) mutation in Dielmo, Senegal, an area under long lasting insecticidal treated nets universal coverage for 10 years. Malaria Journal, 17, 123.

Wilson, A. L., Courtenay, O., Kelly-Hope, L. A., Scott, T. W., Takken, W., Torr, S. J., & Lindsay, S. W. (2020). The importance of vector control for the control and elimination of vector-borne diseases. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease, 14(1), e0007831.

Wirtz, R. A., Zavala, F., Charoenvit, Y., Cambell, G. H., Burkot, T. R., Schneider, I., Esser, K. M., Beaudoin, R. L., & Andre, G. R. (1987). Comparative testing of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite monoclonal antibodies for ELISA development. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 65(1), 39–45.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2003). Malaria entomology and vector control: Learner’s guide.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2017). Global vector control response 2017–2030.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2019). World Malaria Report 2019.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2021). World Malaria Report 2021.



How to Cite

Obembe, A. (2023). Molecular characterization and Plasmodium falciparum transmission risks of Anopheles mosquitoes in Malete, Nigeria. UNED Research Journal, 15(2), e4689.