Pollution of the Durazno River water, Costa Rica: beyond the Dutch water quality index

Pollution of the Durazno River water, Costa Rica: beyond the Dutch water quality index





water pollution, indicators, water quality, antibiotics, SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS


ABSTRACT. “Pollution of the Durazno River water, Costa Rica: beyond the Dutch water quality index”. Introduction: The micro-basin of the Durazno River in Costa Rica is a source of water for human consumption, but is suspected of microbiological pollution from several land uses. Objective: To assess the water quality of the Durazno micro-basin from the physicochemical, microbiological and antibiotics points of view. Methods: We used the Dutch Water Quality index; Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater; and solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Results: While physicochemical parameters indicated an adequate water quality, microbiologically this water is not acceptable for human consumption. The water has Doxycycline and Cefotaxime, possibly of agricultural origin. This is the first report of Cefotaxime in water from Costa Rica. The Dutch index fails to take into account microbiological parameters that are also important. Conclusion: The Durazno River does not meet the standards for human water consumption and the Dutch index needs to be complemented with microbiological parameters.




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How to Cite

Venegas González, D. A., Morales Mora, E., Barrantes Jiménez, K., Gómez Ramírez, E., Fuentes-Schweizer, P., & Irías Mata, A. (2023). Pollution of the Durazno River water, Costa Rica: beyond the Dutch water quality index. UNED Research Journal, 15(1), e4339. https://doi.org/10.22458/urj.v15i1.4339



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