Nutritional recommendations for dog and cat commercial food in Costa Rica

Nutritional recommendations for dog and cat commercial food in Costa Rica




Requirement, Food consumption, Body weight, Physiological stages, Comercial feed


Introduction: The nutritional analysis of commercial food helps optimize its use and the pets’ nutrition, and there are no recent analyses of this type for Costa Rica. Objective: To recommend pet foods according to the physiological state, level of activity and weight of cats and dogs in Costa Rica. Methods: Products registered at the government’s Directorate for Animal Food were analyzed for nutritional information (2017) and animal requirements using three equations for cats and nine for dogs. Results: Of the average package recommendations, 71% would provide insufficient nutrition for dogs, and 63% insufficient nutrition for cats. Conclusions: Most commercial food products available in Costa Rica recommend amounts that are insufficient to meet the needs of many cats and dogs.


AAFCO (2020). Animal feed labeling guide. Association of Amercian Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). Head quarters Office 1800 S. Oak Street, Suite 100 Champaign, IL 61820-6974


Balwin, K., Bartges, J., Buffington, T., Freeman, L., Grabow, M., Legred, J. & Ostwald, D. (2010). Guías para la Evaluación Nutricional de perros y gatos de la Asociación Americana Hospitalaria de Animales (AAHA). Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 46,4,

Bjørnvad, C.R., Gloor, S., Johansen, S.S., Sandøe, P. & Lund, T.B. (2019). Neutering increases the risk of obesity in male dogs but not in bitches — Across-sectional study of dog- and owner-related risk factors for obesity in Danish companion dogs. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 170, 104730.

Brooks, D., Churchill, J., Fein, K., Linder, D., Michel, K., Tudor, K., Ward, E, & Witzel, A. (2014). Weight management guide lines for dogs and cats. Journal Amercan Animal Hospital Association, 50:1–11.

Case, L; Carey, D. & Hirakawa, D. (1997). Nutrición Canina y Felina. Manual para Profesionales. Edición en Español. Hartcourt Brace. Madrid. España. 424 p.

Cave, N.J.; Bridges, J.P.; Weidgraaf, K. & Granville-Thomas, D. (2018). Non linear mixed models of growth curves from domestics hort hair cats in a breeding colony, housed in a seasonal facility to predict obesity. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 102, 1390-1400.

Corsto-Alvarenga, I. & Aldrich C., (2020). Starch characterization of comercial extruded dry petfoods. Translational Animal Science,4,1017–1022. 10.1093/tas/txaa018

Curso-Almeida, P. (2020). Effects of pea starch yeast fermentation on glycemic index, palatability, metabolic status and intestinal health of dogs and cats fed a pea based diet. (Thesis, Master science) University of Sakatchewan, Canada. 152 p.

Daumas, C., Paragon B.M., Thorin, C., Martin, L., Dumon, H., Ninet, S. & Nguyen, P. (2014). Evaluation of eight commercial dog diets. Journal of Nutritional Science,(3),e63, 1-5.

Di Cerbo, A., Morales-Medina J.C., Palmieri, B., Pezzutto, F., Cocco, R., Flores, G. & Iannitti, T.(2017). Functional foods in pet nutrition: Focus on dogs and cats. Research in Veterinary Science, 112, 161-166.

Ephraim, E. & Jewell D. (2020). Effect of added dietary betaine and soluble fiber on metabolites and fecal microbiome in dog with early renal disease. Metabolites, 10, 0370;

Gómez L.; Atehortua, C. & Orozco S. (2007). La influencia de las mascotas en la vida humana. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 20,377-386.

Hand, M., Thatcher, C., Remillard, R., Roudebush, P. (2000). Nutrición clínica en pequeños animales (Small Animal Clinical Nutrition). 4ta ed. Editorial Inter-Médica S.A.I.C.I. ISBN 0-945837-05-4. 1368 p.

Heuberger, R. & Wakshlag, J. (2011). The relationship of feeding patterns and obesity in dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 95, 98–105. 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01024.x

Jurgens, M. (1997). Animal Feeding and Nutrition. 8° Edición. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Estados Unidos. 585 p.

Kersbergen, I., German, A., Westgarth, C. & Robinson, E. (2019). Portion size and meal consumption in domesticated dogs: An experimental study. Physiology & Behavior, 204, 174-179.

Leiva, A., Molina, A., Redondo-Solano, M., Artavia, G., Rojas-Bogante, L. & Granados-Chinchilla, F. (2019). Pet food quality assurance and safety and quality assurance survey with in the Costa Rican petfood industry. Animals, 9, 980;

Ley N° 6883. Ley N° 6883. Para el Control de la Elaboración y Expendio de Alimentos para Animales. , (1983).

Maynard, L., Loosli. J., Hintz, H. & Warner, R. (1981). Nutrición Animal. Sétima edición. McGraw Hill Book Co, USA. ISBN 0-07-041049-6. 640 p.

Mesén, M. (2009). Desarrollo de la categoría de mascotas en supermercados versus tiendas de mascotas en Costa Rica. (Trabajo de licenciatura). Universidad Latinoamericana de Ciencia y Tecnología. San José, Costa Rica. 25 p.

National Research Council (NRC). (1974). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs. National Academy Press. Washinton, D.C. 64 p.

National Research Council (NRC). (1985). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs. National Academy Press. Washinton, D.C. 79 p.

National Research Council (NRC). (2006). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press. Washinton, D.C. 424 p.

Oberbauer, A., Belanger, J. & Famula, T. (2019). A review of the impact of neuter status on expresión of in herited conditions in dogs. Reviews. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6. 10.3389/fvets.2019.00397

Olatunde, G. & Atungulu, G. (2018). Emerging petfood drying and storage strategies to maintain safety. Charter 3, 45-61. Food and Feed Safety Systems and Analysis.

Pearl, R., Wadden, T., Bach, C., Leonard, S. & Michel, K. (2020). Who´s a good boy? Effects of dog and owner body weight on veterinarian perceptions and treatment recommendations. International Journal of Obesity,

Ripps, H.& Shen, W. (2012). Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid. Molecular Vision, 18, 2673-2686.>

Roberts, M.T., Bermingham, E.N., Cave, N.J., Young, W., McKenzie, C.M. & Thomas, D.G. (2018). Macronutrient in take of dogs, self-selecting diets varying in composition offered ad libitum. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 102,568–575.

RTC. Productos utilizados en alimentación animal y establecimiento. Pub. L. No. 65.05.52:11 (2012).

Salt, C., Morris P.J., Butterwick, R., Lund, R.F., Cole, T.J. & German, A.J. (2020). Comparison of growth patterns in healthy dogs and dogs in abnormal body condition using growth standards. PLoS ONE 15(9), e0238521, 10.1371/journal.pone.0238521

SEPSA (2014). Boletín Estadístico Agropecuario –Nº24. (1990-). – San José C.R.. Secretaría Ejecutiva de Planificación Sectorial Agropecuaria Estudios(SEPSA). Económicos e Información. 210 pp.

Solís, C. & Ramírez A. (2013). Tenencia y cuido de mascotas en las viviendas, pp: 38-41. In: Madrigal, J. (2013) Encuesta Actualidades. Escuela de Estadística, Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica. Consultada el 9 de octubre de 2019 en

Trat, Q.D., Hendriks, W.H. & van der Poel, A.F.B. (2008). Effects of extrusión processing on nutrients in

drypetfood. Journal of the Sciencie of Food and Agriculture, 88, 1487-1493.

Torda-Orsolya, J., Kata, V., Junó-Vanda, K. & Pongrácz, P. (2020). Factor affecting canine obesity seem to be independent of the economic status of the country- A survey on Hungarian companion dogs. Animals, 2020, 10, 1267,

van Herwijnen, I.R., Corbee, R.J., Endenburg, N.,Beerda, B. & van der Borg, J.A.M. (2020) Permissive parenting of the dog associates with dog overweight in a survey among 2,303 Dutch dog owners. PLoS ONE, 15(8), e0237429.

WAP (Protección Animal Mundial). (2016). Estudio Nacional sobre tenencia de perros en Costa Rica. San José. Costa Rica. 49 p. Disponible en (9-10-2019):

Zicker, S. (2008). Evaluating pet foods: How confident are you when you recommend a comercial pet food?. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine,23(3),121-126.

Ward, E. (2015). Las 5 preguntas más importantes sobre la obesidad de mascotas: cómo chequear, qué alimentar y cómo ejercitar. Asociación para la Prevención de Obesidad de Mascotas. Estados Unidos. Disponible en:

Wrap (2009). Efficient use of resource in pet food packaging design. Pet food report. Material change for a better environment. Project Code: RSC003-009. ISBN:1-84405-427-6.

Yao, X. & Tian, Z (2015) Saturated, monounsaturated and poly unsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: evidence from observational studies. PLoS ONE, 10(6), e0130870.

Yam, P.S., Butowski, C.F., Chitty, J.L., Naughton, G., Wiseman-Orr, M.L., Parkin, T. & Reid, J. (2016).

Impact of canine overweight and obesity on health –related quality of life. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 127, 64-69.



How to Cite

Torres Vargas, M., & WingChing Jones, R. (2021). Nutritional recommendations for dog and cat commercial food in Costa Rica. UNED Research Journal, 13(2), e3385.