The pampean gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) as a disperser of blackberry seeds (Morus nigra)
PDF (Español (España))
HTML (Español (España))
EPUB (Español (España))


Lycalopex gymnocercus
Gray fox
Morus nigra

How to Cite

Duarte Baschini, C., & Dellafiore, C. M. (2021). The pampean gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) as a disperser of blackberry seeds (Morus nigra) . UNED Research Journal, 13(1), 6.


Introduction: In the mountain forests of the Córdoba, Argentina, foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) include in their diet fruits of exotic species such as blackberries (Morus nigra), an invasive species native of Asia. Objective: To learn if blackberry seeds suffer damage in the digestive tract of foxes, and if this affects the viability, germination power, onset and germination rate. Methods: Blackberry seeds were collected in the field and from fresh feces of captive foxes; 300 seeds were randomly selected per treatment and kept in a germinator at 25 ° C. The germination criterium was the emergence of the radicle. Results: All the seeds extracted from the feces were healthy. The onset of germination occurred on the same day in both treatments, even though germination rates were higher for the seeds extracted directly from the fruits. Conclusions: Despite minor damage to the seeds, the fox is a disperser of blackberry seeds.
PDF (Español (España))
HTML (Español (España))
EPUB (Español (España))


Bradbeer, J. W. (2013). Seed dormancy and germination. USA: Springer Science & Business Media.

Cabrera, A. L. (1976). Enciclopedia Argentina de agricultura y jardinería: regiones fitogeográficas argentinas. Argentina: Editorial Acme.

Cottrell, H. J. (1947). Tetrazolium salt as a seed germination indicator. Nature, 159(4048), 748.

Fleming, T. H., & Heithaus, E. R. (1981). Frugivorous Bats, Seed Shadows, and the Structure of Tropical Forests. Biotropica, 13(2), 45-53.

Fleming, T. H., & Williams, C. F. (1990). Phenology, seed dispersal, and recruitment in Cecropia peltata (Moraceae) in Costa Rican tropical dry forest. Journal of tropical ecology, 6(2), 163-178.

Fleming, T. H., & Sosa, V. J. (1994). Effects of nectarivorous and frugivorous mammals on reproductive success of plants. Journal of Mammalogy, 75(4), 845-851.

Galindo, J. (1998). Dispersión de semillas por murciélagos: su importancia en la conservación y regeneración del bosque tropical. Acta zoológica Mexicana (N.S.), (73), 57-74.

Heithaus E. R. (1982) Coevolution between Bats and Plants. En T.H. Kunz (Ed). Ecology of Bats (pp. 327-367). Springer, Boston, MA.

Herrera, C. M. (1989). Frugivory and seed dispersal by carnivorous mammals, and associated fruit characteristics, in undisturbed Meditarranean. Oikos, 55(2), 250-262.

Izhaki, C., & Arad, K. Z. (1995). The effect of bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) dispersal on seed germination in eastern Mediterranean hábitats. Oecologia, 101(3), 335-342.

Izhaki, I., & Ne’eman, G. (1997). Hares (Lepus spp.) as seed dispersers of Retama raetam (Fabaceae) in sandy landscape. Journal of arid environment, 37(2), 343-354.

Janzen, D. H. (1970). Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. The American Naturalist, 104(940), 501-528.

Levey, D. J., & Grajal A. (1991). Evolutionary Implications of Fruit-Processing Limitations in Cedar Waxwings. The American Naturalist, 138(1), 171-189.

Lieberman, M., & Lieberman, D. (1986). An experimental study of seed ingestion and germination in a plant-animal assemblage in Ghana. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 2(2), 113–126.

Luengos, E. (2003). Estudio comparado de metodologías de captura y estimación de las poblaciones de zorro pampeano Pseudalopex gymnocercus (tesis inédita de maestría). Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

MacKay D. B. (1972) The Measurement of Viability. En E.H. Roberts (Ed). Viability of Seeds (pp. 172-208). Springer, Dordrecht.

Nuñez, M. B., & Bozzolo, L. (2006). Descripción de la dieta del zorro gris, Pseudalopex griseus (Canidae) (Gray, 1842), en el Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas, Argentina. Gayana, 70(2), 163-167.

Suárez‐Esteban, A., Delibes, M., & Fedriani, J. M. (2013). Barriers or corridors? The overlooked role of unpaved roads in endozoochorous seed dispersal. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(3), 767-774.

Tolaba, J. A., & Novara, L. (1996). Moraceae. Aportes Botanicos de Salta-Serie Flora, 4(9), 1-13.

Traveset, A. (1998). Effect of seed passage throught vertebrate frugivores’ guts on germination: a review. Perspectives in a Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 1(2), 151-190.

​Varela, O., Cormenzana-Méndez, A., Krapovickas, L., & Bucher, E. H. (2008). Seasonal diet of the pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) in the Chaco dry Woodland, northwestern Argentina. Journal of Mammalogy, 89(4), 1012-1019.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.